The Cannons. K likes. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and ushccbids.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been. Seán Cannon (* November in Galway) ist ein irischer Sänger und Gitarrist. Bekanntheit erlangte er vor allem durch seine Mitgliedschaft bei der Irish. The Cannons „Celtic Folk and more" Seit ist Seán Cannon die Stimme von THE DUBLINERS und damit eine lebende Legende des Irish.
The CannonsVERANSTALTUNG ABGESAGT! Sonntag, März Beginn 20 Uhr. THE CANNONS. Nice to see you. Fans des Celtic und American Folk dürfen sich auch. The Cannons „Celtic Folk and more" Seit ist Seán Cannon die Stimme von THE DUBLINERS und damit eine lebende Legende des Irish. The Cannons. K likes. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and ushccbids.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been.
The Cannons Get in touch VideoJUICY DOUBLE-CHEESEBURGERS AND FRIED SAUSAGE DOGS!! - FOOD FACTS - MUKBANG EATING SHOW The Cannons. Gefällt Mal. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and ushccbids.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been. The Cannons. K likes. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and ushccbids.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been. The Cannons - Seán Cannon prägte mit seiner Stimme dreißig Jahre lang den Sound der Irish Folk-Gruppe The Dubliners, welche sich in ihrer fünfzigjährigen. In der Kulturscheune in Salzgitter-Lebenstedt treten The Cannons am Samstag, Februar, ab Uhr im Rahmen der Reihe "Scheune.
Security Cameras. Safe Parking. Taxi Service. Pluto Maxi Taxi Allan 4 Seater Sedan Sherwin 7 Seater SUV Experience Trinidad and Tobago.
Far from ordinary, our islands offer unique experiences not found anywhere in the Caribbean. Make An Enquiry. Are you a Cannon Bride?
Take the quiz! We are Ohio Wedding Photographers who are on a mission to provide a one of a kind experience through service that goes above and beyond from the moment we say hello for years to come!
Is your wedding outside of Ohio? We can come to you! If you're looking for photographers who will serve you with all their heart, then you have come to the right place!
We are husband and wife wedding photographers serving Cleveland, Ohio and beyond. Believe it or not, Robert wished on a star that we would get married when we were Well, here we are and we can't wait to hear your special story!
They were more than just our photographers. They helped us plan our timeline of our event, and were always available if we had any questions throughout the whole wedding planning process.
Around this time also came the idea of aiming the cannon to hit a target. Gunners controlled the range of their cannon by measuring the angle of elevation, using a "gunner's quadrant.
It was only in the years prior to World War I that new works began to break radically away from his designs. By the end of the 18th century, principles long adopted in Europe specified the characteristics of the Royal Navy 's cannon, as well as the acceptable defects, and their severity.
The United States Navy tested guns by measuring them, firing them two or three times—termed "proof by powder"—and using pressurized water to detect leaks.
The carronade was adopted by the Royal Navy in ; the lower muzzle velocity of the round shot when fired from this cannon was intended to create more wooden splinters when hitting the structure of an enemy vessel, as they were believed to be more deadly than the ball by itself.
The guns were, therefore, easier to handle, and also required less than half as much gunpowder, allowing fewer men to crew them.
As a result, the classification of Royal Navy vessels in this period can be misleading, as they often carried more cannon than were listed.
Cannon were crucial in Napoleon 's rise to power, and continued to play an important role in his army in later years. When over 25, royalists led by General Danican assaulted Paris, Paul Barras was appointed to defend the capital; outnumbered five to one and disorganised, the Republicans were desperate.
He ordered Joachim Murat to bring the guns from the Sablons artillery park; the Major and his cavalry fought their way to the recently captured cannon, and brought them back to Napoleon.
As the battlefield was muddy, recoil caused cannon to bury themselves into the ground after firing, resulting in slow rates of fire, as more effort was required to move them back into an adequate firing position;  also, roundshot did not ricochet with as much force from the wet earth.
Eventually, the French ceased their assault, after taking heavy losses from the British cannon and musket fire. In the s and s, greater emphasis was placed on the accuracy of long-range gunfire, and less on the weight of a broadside.
The carronade, although initially very successful and widely adopted, disappeared from the Royal Navy in the s after the development of wrought-iron-jacketed steel cannon by William Armstrong and Joseph Whitworth.
Nevertheless, carronades were used in the American Civil War. Western cannon during the 19th century became larger, more destructive, more accurate, and could fire at longer range.
Another is the smoothbore pounder Napoleon , which originated in France in and was widely used by both sides in the American Civil War.
The practice of rifling —casting spiralling lines inside the cannon's barrel—was applied to artillery more frequently by , as it gave cannon projectiles gyroscopic stability, which improved their accuracy.
One of the earliest rifled cannon was the breech-loading Armstrong Gun —also invented by William Armstrong—which boasted significantly improved range, accuracy, and power than earlier weapons.
The projectile fired from the Armstrong gun could reportedly pierce through a ship's side and explode inside the enemy vessel, causing increased damage and casualties.
The superior cannon of the Western world brought them tremendous advantages in warfare. For example, in the First Opium War in China, during the 19th century, British battleships bombarded the coastal areas and fortifications from afar, safe from the reach of the Chinese cannon.
Similarly, the shortest war in recorded history, the Anglo-Zanzibar War of , was brought to a swift conclusion by shelling from British cruisers.
Cannon in the 20th and 21st centuries are usually divided into sub-categories and given separate names.
Some of the most widely used types of modern cannon are howitzers, mortars, guns, and autocannon, although a few very large-calibre cannon , custom-designed, have also been constructed.
Nuclear artillery was experimented with, but was abandoned as impractical. According to NATO , the general role of artillery is to provide fire support, which is defined as "the application of fire, coordinated with the manoeuvre of forces to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy.
When referring to cannon, the term gun is often used incorrectly. In military usage, a gun is a cannon with a high muzzle velocity and a flat trajectory , useful for hitting the sides of targets such as walls,  as opposed to howitzers or mortars, which have lower muzzle velocities, and fire indirectly, lobbing shells up and over obstacles to hit the target from above.
By the early 20th century, infantry weapons had become more powerful, forcing most artillery away from the front lines. Furthermore, their shells carried more explosives than those of guns, and caused considerably less barrel wear.
The German army had the advantage here as they began the war with many more howitzers than the French.
The Second World War sparked new developments in cannon technology. Among them were sabot rounds , hollow-charge projectiles, and proximity fuses , all of which increased the effectiveness of cannon against specific target.
Although widely used in naval warfare, and in anti-air guns, both the British and Americans feared unexploded proximity fuses would be reverse engineered leading to them limiting its use in continental battles.
During the Battle of the Bulge , however, the fuses became known as the American artillery's "Christmas present" for the German army because of their effectiveness against German personnel in the open, when they frequently dispersed attacks.
By the end of the war, 17 pounders had proven much more effective against German tanks, and 32 pounders had entered development.
Despite being designed to fire at trajectories with a steep angle of descent, howitzers can be fired directly , as was done by the 11th Marine Regiment at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir , during the Korean War.
Two field batteries fired directly upon a battalion of Chinese infantry; the Marines were forced to brace themselves against their howitzers, as they had no time to dig them in.
The Chinese infantry took heavy casualties, and were forced to retreat. The tendency to create larger calibre cannon during the World Wars has reversed since.
The United States Army , for example, sought a lighter, more versatile howitzer, to replace their ageing pieces. As it could be towed, the M was selected to be the successor to the World War II—era cannon used at the time, and entered service in Although land-based artillery such as the M are powerful, long-ranged, and accurate, naval guns have not been neglected, despite being much smaller than in the past, and, in some cases, having been replaced by cruise missiles.
The AGS's barrels will be water cooled, and will fire 10 rounds per minute, per gun. The combined firepower from both turrets will give a Zumwalt -class destroyer the firepower equivalent to 18 conventional M howitzers.
Autocannons have an automatic firing mode, similar to that of a machine gun. They have mechanisms to automatically load their ammunition, and therefore have a higher rate of fire than artillery, often approaching, or, in the case of rotary autocannons , even surpassing the firing rate of a machine gun.
Machine guns in contrast are usually too small to use explosive ammunition. Most nations use rapid-fire cannon on light vehicles, replacing a more powerful, but heavier, tank gun.
Autocannons may be capable of a very high rate of fire, but ammunition is heavy and bulky, limiting the amount carried. The typical rate of fire for a modern autocannon ranges from 90 to 1, rounds per minute.
Systems with multiple barrels, such as a rotary autocannon, can have rates of fire of more than several thousand rounds per minute. Autocannons are often found in aircraft, where they replaced machine guns and as shipboard anti-aircraft weapons, as they provide greater destructive power than machine guns.
The first documented installation of a cannon on an aircraft was on the Voisin Canon in , displayed at the Paris Exposition that year. By World War I, all of the major powers were experimenting with aircraft mounted cannon; however their low rate of fire and great size and weight precluded any of them from being anything other than experimental.
The pilot by necessity an ace had to manually reload each round. The first autocannon were developed during World War I as anti-aircraft guns, and one of these—the Coventry Ordnance Works " COW 37 mm gun " was installed in an aircraft but the war ended before it could be given a field trial and never became standard equipment in a production aircraft.
Later trials had it fixed at a steep angle upwards in both the Vickers Type and the Westland C. Gun Fighter , an idea that would return later.
During this period autocannons became available and several fighters of the German Luftwaffe and the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service were fitted with 20mm cannon.
They continued to be installed as an adjunct to machine guns rather than as a replacement, as the rate of fire was still too low and the complete installation too heavy.
There was a some debate in the RAF as to whether the greater number of possible rounds being fired from a machine gun, or a smaller number of explosive rounds from a cannon was preferable.
Improvements during the war in regards to rate of fire allowed the cannon to displace the machine gun almost entirely. The Hispano-Suiza HS. Cannon, as with machine guns, were generally fixed to fire forwards mounted in the wings, in the nose or fuselage, or in a pannier under either ; or were mounted in gun turrets on heavier aircraft.
Both the Germans and Japanese mounted cannon to fire upwards and forwards for use against heavy bombers, with the Germans calling guns so-installed Schräge Musik.
Schräge Musik derives from the German colloquialism for Jazz Music the German word schräg means slanted or oblique. Preceding the Vietnam War the high speeds aircraft were attaining led to a move to remove the cannon due to the mistaken belief that they would be useless in a dogfight , but combat experience during the Vietnam War showed conclusively that despite advances in missiles, there was still a need for them.
Nearly all modern fighter aircraft are armed with an autocannon and they are also commonly found on ground-attack aircraft.
Cannon in general have the form of a truncated cone with an internal cylindrical bore for holding an explosive charge and a projectile.
The thickest, strongest, and closed part of the cone is located near the explosive charge. As any explosive charge will dissipate in all directions equally, the thickest portion of the cannon is useful for containing and directing this force.
The backward motion of the cannon as its projectile leaves the bore is termed its recoil , and the effectiveness of the cannon can be measured in terms of how much this response can be diminished, though obviously diminishing recoil through increasing the overall mass of the cannon means decreased mobility.
Field artillery cannon in Europe and the Americas were initially made most often of bronze , though later forms were constructed of cast iron and eventually steel.
However, cast-iron cannon have a tendency to burst without having shown any previous weakness or wear, and this makes them more dangerous to operate.
The older and more-stable forms of cannon were muzzle-loading as opposed to breech-loading —in order to be used they had to have their ordnance packed down the bore through the muzzle rather than inserted through the breech.
The following terms refer to the components or aspects of a classical western cannon c. The main body of a cannon consists of three basic extensions: the foremost and the longest is called the chase , the middle portion is the reinforce , and the closest and briefest portion is the cascabel or cascable.
To pack a muzzle-loading cannon, first gunpowder is poured down the bore. This is followed by a layer of wadding often nothing more than paper , and then the cannonball itself.
A certain amount of windage allows the ball to fit down the bore, though the greater the windage the less efficient the propulsion of the ball when the gunpowder is ignited.
To fire the cannon, the fuse located in the vent is lit, quickly burning down to the gunpowder, which then explodes violently, propelling wadding and ball down the bore and out of the muzzle.
A small portion of exploding gas also escapes through the vent, but this does not dramatically affect the total force exerted on the ball.
Gun specifically refers to a type of cannon that fires projectiles at high speeds, and usually at relatively low angles;  they have been used in warships,  and as field artillery.
Cannon have been used extensively in fighter aircraft since World War II. In the s, cannon operation worked as follows: each cannon would be manned by two gunners, six soldiers, and four officers of artillery.
The right gunner was to prime the piece and load it with powder, and the left gunner would fetch the powder from the magazine and be ready to fire the cannon at the officer's command.
On each side of the cannon, three soldiers stood, to ram and sponge the cannon, and hold the ladle. The second soldier on the left was tasked with providing 50 bullets.
Before loading, the cannon would be cleaned with a wet sponge to extinguish any smouldering material from the last shot.
Fresh powder could be set off prematurely by lingering ignition sources. The powder was added, followed by wadding of paper or hay, and the ball was placed in and rammed down.
After ramming, the cannon would be aimed with the elevation set using a quadrant and a plummet. At 45 degrees, the ball had the utmost range: about ten times the gun's level range.
Any angle above a horizontal line was called random-shot. Wet sponges were used to cool the pieces every ten or twelve rounds.
During the Napoleonic Wars , a British gun team consisted of five gunners to aim it, clean the bore with a damp sponge to quench any remaining embers before a fresh charge was introduced, and another to load the gun with a bag of powder and then the projectile.
The fourth gunner pressed his thumb on the vent hole, to prevent a draught that might fan a flame. The charge loaded, the fourth would prick the bagged charge through the vent hole, and fill the vent with powder.
On command, the fifth gunner would fire the piece with a slow match. When a cannon had to be abandoned such as in a retreat or surrender, the touch hole of the cannon would be plugged flush with an iron spike, disabling the cannon at least until metal boring tools could be used to remove the plug.
This was called "spiking the cannon". A gun was said to be honeycombed when the surface of the bore had cavities, or holes in it,  caused either by corrosion or casting defects.
Historically, logs or poles have been used as decoys to mislead the enemy as to the strength of an emplacement. The " Quaker Gun trick" was used by Colonel William Washington 's Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War ; in , approximately Loyalists surrendered to them, rather than face bombardment.
The decoy cannon were painted black at the "muzzle", and positioned behind fortifications to delay Union attacks on those positions. On occasion, real gun carriages were used to complete the deception.
Cannon sounds have sometimes been used in classical pieces with a military theme. One of the best known examples of such a piece is Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 's Overture.
Cannon recovered from the sea are often extensively damaged from exposure to salt water; because of this, electrolytic reduction treatment is required to forestall the process of corrosion.
Bible Foundations. History Tradition. Denominations Groups. Main article: Fifty Bibles of Constantine. Main article: Peshitta.
Main articles: Latin Church and Catholic Bible. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Main article: Luther's canon. Main article: Canon of Trent. See also: Protestant Bible. Main articles: Biblical apocrypha and New Testament apocrypha.
Main article: Development of the Old Testament canon. See also: Reception of Enoch in antiquity.
Other western churches and movements that have a divergent history from Roman Catholicism, but are not necessarily considered to be historically Protestant, may also fall under this umbrella terminology.
Some Eastern Rite churches who are in fellowship with the Roman Catholic Church may have different books in their canons. Extra-canonical Old Testament books appear in historical canon lists and recensions that are either exclusive to this tradition, or where they do exist elsewhere, never achieved the same status.
These include the Deaths of the Prophets , an ancient account of the lives of the Old Testament prophets, which is not listed in this table.
It is also known as the Lives of the Prophets. Another writing not listed in this table entitled the Words of Sirach —which is distinct from Ecclesiasticus and its prologue—appears in the appendix of the Armenian Zohrab Bible alongside other, more commonly known works.
Some Protestant Bibles include 3 Maccabees as part of the Apocrypha. However, many churches within Protestantism—as it is presented here—reject the Apocrypha, do not consider it useful, and do not include it in their Bibles.
The rest of the Book of Odes consists of passages found elsewhere in the Bible. However, a degree of uncertainty continues to exist here, and it is certainly possible that the full text—including the prologue and epilogue—appears in Bibles and Biblical manuscripts used by some of these eastern traditions.
Also of note is the fact that many Latin versions are missing verses — A more complete explanation of the various divisions of books associated with the scribe Ezra may be found in the Wikipedia article entitled " Esdras ".
Others, like Melito, omitted it from the canon altogether. This most likely refers to the book more commonly known as Joseph and Asenath.
An unknown book of Uzziah is also listed there, which may be connected to the lost Acts of Uziah referenced in 2 Chronicles The two versions of the prayer in Latin may be viewed online for comparison at the following website: BibleGateway.
While this likely refers to the account of Isaiah's death within the Lives of the Prophets, it may be a reference to the account of his death found within the first five chapters of the Ascension of Isaiah, which is widely known by this name.
The two narratives have similarities and may share a common source. Though it is not currently considered canonical, various sources attest to the early canonicity—or at least "semi-canonicity"—of this book.
The letter had a wider circulation and often appeared separately from the first 77 chapters of the book, which is an apocalypse.
Two manuscripts exist—a longer Greek manuscript with Christian interpolations and a shorter Slavonic version.
There is some uncertainty about which was written first. Extra-canonical New Testament books appear in historical canon lists and recensions that are either distinct to this tradition, or where they do exist elsewhere, never achieved the same status.
Some of the books are not listed in this table. These include the Prayer of Euthalius , the Repose of St.
Various sources also mention undefined Armenian canonical additions to the Gospels of Mark and John, however, these may refer to the general additions—Mark —20 and John ——discussed elsewhere in these notes.
A possible exception here to canonical exclusivity is the Second Apostolic Canons, which share a common source—the Apostolic Constitutions —with certain parts of the Orthodox Tewahedo New Testament broader canon.
The correspondence between King Agbar and Jesus Christ, which is found in various forms—including within both the Doctrine of Addai and the Acts of Thaddeus—sometimes appears separately see this list.
It is noteworthy that the Prayer of Euthalius and the Repose of St. John the Evangelist appear in the appendix of the Armenian Zohrab Bible.
However, some of the aforementioned books, though they are found within canon lists, have nonetheless never been discovered to be part of any Armenian Biblical manuscript.
They are as follows: Mark —20 , John — , the Comma Johanneum , and portions of the Western version of Acts. To varying degrees, arguments for the authenticity of these passages—especially for the one from the Gospel of John—have occasionally been made.
It exists today only in fragments. Some of the content within these individual sections may have developed separately, however.
Especially of note is John Wycliffe 's inclusion of the epistle in his English translation, and the Quakers ' use of it to the point where they produced a translation and made pleas for its canonicity Poole's Annotations , on Col.
The epistle is nonetheless widely rejected by the vast majority of Protestants. The vast majority of Protestants embrace these four works as fully canonical.
Still today, the official lectionary followed by the Syriac Orthodox Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, present lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions.
It was also held in high regard by Clement of Alexandria. They are even classified as part of the New Testament canon within the body of the Constitutions itself.
Moreover, they are the source for a great deal of the content in the Orthodox Tewahedo broader canon. Nonetheless, their early authorship and inclusion in ancient Biblical codices, as well as their acceptance to varying degrees by various early authorities, requires them to be treated as foundational literature for Christianity as a whole.
Main article: Revelation Latter Day Saints. Main article: Standard works. Religion portal. Furthermore, some uncertainty remains concerning the exclusion of various smaller deuterocanonical writings from this canon including the Prayer of Manasseh, the traditional additions to Esther, the traditional additions to Daniel, Psalm , and portions of Säqoqawä Eremyas.
Moreover, in Antiquities , Josephus made two extra-Biblical references to Jesus, which have played a crucial role in establishing him as a historical figure.
Some books, though considered canonical, are nonetheless difficult to locate and are not even widely available in Ethiopia. While the narrower canon has indeed been published as one compilation, there may be no real emic distinction between the broader canon and the narrower canon, especially in so far as divine inspiration and scriptural authority are concerned.
The idea of two such classifications may be nothing more than etic taxonomic conjecture. A translation of the entire remaining Acts of Paul can be accessed online at Early Christian Writings.
In McDonald, L. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. It is further defined as follows: " While it is tempting to think that such usage has its origins in antiquity in reference to a closed collection of scriptures, such is not the case.
Letter Vatican City. Retrieved 18 January Canon In Niehoff, M. Leiden: Brill. Journal of Theological Studies. April Journal of Bible and Religion.
Oxford University Press. Anchor Bible Dictionary , Vol. New York: Doubleday. How To Read The Bible. Jewish Publication Society.
With many other scholars, I conclude that the fixing of a canonical list was almost certainly the achievement of the Hasmonean dynasty.
Jewish Encyclopedia. Citing private communication with Emanuel Tov on biblical manuscripts : Qumran scribe type c. With the destruction of the Temple and the state the Sadducees as a party no longer had an object for which to live.
Translated by Bowman. October Bible Review. In The Catholic Encyclopedia , ed. Taylor Marshall. Retrieved 1 December Attributed to Albert Sundberg's Harvard dissertation.
Justin Martyr. First Apology. The Canon of the New Testament. The question whether the Church's canon preceded or followed Marcion's canon continues to be debated.
Origin of the New Testament. Adversus Haereses. Turning Points. Baker Academic. In de Jonge, H. The Biblical Canons. Leuven University Press.
The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. Cambridge University Press. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
According to Eusebius' Church History 6. A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. Harvard Theological Review.
Catholic Encyclopedia. It is true that no such declaration is to be found in the Canons of Nicaea, and it is uncertain whether St.
Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington Books. Harklean Version. The Harklean version is connected with the labors of Thomas of Harqel. When thousands were fleeing Khosrou's invading armies, The project was founded by Philip E.
Pusey who started the collation work in However, he could not see it to completion since he died in Note Revelation was added later in at the subsequent synod of Carthage.
The Canon of Scripture. Intervarsity Press. De Civitate Dei. Sanders Hendrickson, p.